Vikings have always had a pretty notorious reputation, but new research suggests that they may have left behind another troubling legacy.
Recent excavations at Viking latrine pits in Denmark have found that despite being strong and fearsome warriors, the Vikings suffered terribly from internal worm infestations. New research led by the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine has concluded that this same gene could now be causing some serious problems for those who inherited it, particularly emphysema.
Oppositional defiant disorder: current insight
Our bodies naturally produce enzymes which are capable of breaking down our own organ tissues. To prevent this, our bodies also produce inhibitors, which protect the organs from damage by these enzymes.
Medical research into why some people have a more natural risk of developing lung disease has discovered that the only inherited risk factor appears to be a deviant form of one of these inhibitors — alphaantitrypsin A1AT. The gene variant is particularly common in Scandinavia, and can be traced back to Viking DNA, when it appears to have initially evolved to protect the Vikings from their high exposure to parasitic diseases.
Our modern medicine now allows us to effectively tackle internal worms, meaning the deviant gene is now more or less obsolete. For people who still carry it, however, the mutant form of A1AT is instead potentially increasing their risk of lung disease. This lasting legacy from the Vikings shows us not only how much our bodies can be shaped by our environment, but also gives an insight into the living conditions in Viking settlements.
The levels of exposure to parasitic disease, and the types of parasites present, can tell us about what diseases people suffered from, which domestic animals they kept, and how close to each other they lived.
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More from the Site Hut Sign up to DigMail No nonsense.Many human diseases have a genetic component.
A genetic disorder is a disease caused in whole or in part by a change in the DNA sequence away from the normal sequence. Genetic disorders can be caused by a mutation in one gene monogenic disorderby mutations in multiple genes multifactorial inheritance disorderby a combination of gene mutations and environmental factors, or by damage to chromosomes changes in the number or structure of entire chromosomes, the structures that carry genes.
As we unlock the secrets of the human genome the complete set of human geneswe are learning that nearly all diseases have a genetic component.
Some diseases are caused by mutations that are inherited from the parents and are present in an individual at birth, like sickle cell disease. Other diseases are caused by acquired mutations in a gene or group of genes that occur during a person's life. Such mutations are not inherited from a parent, but occur either randomly or due to some environmental exposure such as cigarette smoke.
These include many cancers, as well as some forms of neurofibromatosis. This list of genetic, orphan and rare diseases is provided for informational purposes only and is by no means comprehensive. Genetic Disorders. Overview A genetic disorder is a disease caused in whole or in part by a change in the DNA sequence away from the normal sequence. List of Genetic Disorders This list of genetic, orphan and rare diseases is provided for informational purposes only and is by no means comprehensive.
About Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency. About Antiphospholipid Syndrome.
List of disorders
About Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. About Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease. About Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy. About Factor V Leiden Thrombophilia. About Familial Hypercholesterolemia. About Familial Mediterranean Fever. About Huntington's Disease. About Inborn Errors of Metabolism. About Parkinson's Disease. About Severe Combined Immunodeficiency. About Velocardiofacial Syndrome. Featured Content. Health Polygenic Risk Scores. Last updated: May 18, Individuals with intermittent explosive disorder IED — a mental condition characterized by impulsivity, hostility and recurrent aggressive outbursts — have higher levels of two inflammation markers in their blood, according to a new study.
The study, published in the journal JAMA Psychiatryis the first to show a direct link between inflammatory markers and recurrent, problematic, impulsive aggression in people diagnosed with intermittent explosive disorder, but not in those with good mental health or with other mental health disorders.
Intermittent Explosive Disorder
Manning professor and chairman of the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neuroscience at the University of Chicago. Sufferers of IED overreact to stressful situations, often with uncontrollable anger and rage. IED outbursts are out of proportion to the situation that is triggering them.
It has strong genetic and biomedical underpinnings. IED can predispose people to other mental illnesses as well, including depressionanxietyand alcohol or drug-abuse. Those with IED also have an increased risk for non-behavioral health issues, including coronary heart disease, hypertension, stroke, diabetes, arthritis, ulcers, headaches and chronic pain, according to a study.
For the study, researchers focused on blood levels of two markers of inflammation — C-reactive protein CRP and interleukin-6 IL-6 — each of which has been associated with impulsive aggressive behaviors in humans, cats and mice.
IL6 is secreted by white blood cells to stimulate immune responses, such as fever and inflammation. It also increases production of CRP. Sixty-nine of these participants had been diagnosed with IED, 61 had been diagnosed with psychiatric disorders not involving aggression, and 67 had no mental disorder.
Both markers were particularly elevated in participants who had the most extensive histories of aggressive behavior.Bipolar Rage: How to handle the explosion of anger.
Previous research has pointed to connections between an inflammatory response and depression or stress, said Coccaro. Healthy people who have been exposed to endotoxins — which set off a powerful immune reaction — have a much stronger brain reaction to exposure to social threat, such as photographs of an angry or fearful face, than those who were not exposed to endotoxin. Traci Pedersen is a professional writer with over a decade of experience.
Her work consists of writing for both print and online publishers in a variety of genres including science chapter books, college and career articles, and elementary school curriculum.
Psych Central. All rights reserved. Find help or get online counseling now. Hot Topics Today 1. I Need A Break! How to Thrive When Quarantined with a Narcissist.Intermittent explosive disorder involves repeated, sudden episodes of impulsive, aggressive, violent behavior or angry verbal outbursts in which you react grossly out of proportion to the situation.
Road rage, domestic abuse, throwing or breaking objects, or other temper tantrums may be signs of intermittent explosive disorder. These intermittent, explosive outbursts cause you significant distress, negatively impact your relationships, work and school, and they can have legal and financial consequences.
Intermittent explosive disorder is a chronic disorder that can continue for years, although the severity of outbursts may decrease with age. Treatment involves medications and psychotherapy to help you control your aggressive impulses. Explosive eruptions occur suddenly, with little or no warning, and usually last less than 30 minutes. These episodes may occur frequently or be separated by weeks or months of nonaggression.
Less severe verbal outbursts may occur in between episodes of physical aggression. You may be irritable, impulsive, aggressive or chronically angry most of the time. The explosive verbal and behavioral outbursts are out of proportion to the situation, with no thought to consequences, and can include:.
You may feel a sense of relief and tiredness after the episode. Later, you may feel remorse, regret or embarrassment. If you recognize your own behavior in the description of intermittent explosive disorder, talk with your doctor about treatment options or ask for a referral to a mental health professional.
Intermittent explosive disorder can begin in childhood — after the age of 6 years — or during the teenage years. It's more common in younger adults than in older adults. The exact cause of the disorder is unknown, but it's probably caused by a number of environmental and biological factors. If you have intermittent explosive disorder, prevention is likely beyond your control unless you get treatment from a professional.
Combined with or as part of treatment, these suggestions may help you prevent some incidents from getting out of control:.
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This content does not have an Arabic version. Overview Intermittent explosive disorder involves repeated, sudden episodes of impulsive, aggressive, violent behavior or angry verbal outbursts in which you react grossly out of proportion to the situation. Request an Appointment at Mayo Clinic.Intermittent explosive disorder is a lesser-known mental disorder marked by episodes of unwarranted anger. It is estimated that between one to seven percent of individuals will develop intermittent explosive disorder during their lifetime.
Intermittent explosive disorder usually begins in the early teens, but can be seen in children as young as six. It is most common in people under the age of The cause of intermittent explosive disorder is unknown, but some contributing factors have been identified. They include:. Intermittent explosive disorder manifests itself in what seems like adult temper tantrums.
Throwing objects, fighting for no reason, road rage and domestic abuse are examples of intermittent explosive disorder. The outbursts typically last less than 30 minutes. After an outburst, an individual may feel a sense of relief — followed by regret and embarrassment. Individual experiencing intermittent explosive disorder may display one of more of the following symptoms:.
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Advertising on our site helps support our mission. We do not endorse non-Cleveland Clinic products or services. Intermittent Explosive Disorder Intermittent explosive disorder may best be treated by a combination of cognitive behavioral therapy and medications. Appointments What is intermittent explosive disorder? How common is intermittent explosive disorder? Who is affected by intermittent explosive disorder?
What causes intermittent explosive disorder? They include: A genetic component occurs in families Being exposed to verbal and physical abuse in childhood Brain chemistry varying levels of serotonin can contribute to the disorder Having experienced one or more traumatic events in childhood A history of mental health disorders, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ADHDantisocial personality disorder, borderline personality disorder Nearly 82 percent of those with intermittent explosive disorder have also had depression, anxiety or substance abuse disorder What are the signs of intermittent explosive disorder?
What are the symptoms of intermittent explosive disorder? Show More.The following is a list of genetic disorders and if known, type of mutation and the chromosome involved. Although the parlance "disease-causing gene" is common, it is the occurrence of an abnormality in these genes that causes the disease.
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Familial hypercholesterolemia.Bipolar disorder can run in families, so many experts believe that genes play a role in its development. Some environmental factors also play a role in triggering its symptoms. The National Institute of Mental Health estimate that 2. They also say that 4. In this article, we look at the genetic and nongenetic factors that may cause bipolar disorder, as well as some potential treatments for the condition. People are more likely to develop bipolar disorder if they have a close relative with the condition.
Individuals are also more likely to develop bipolar disorder if they have another mental health condition, such as depression or schizophrenia. Some research suggests that the lifetime risk of bipolar disorder in relatives of someone with the condition is 5—10 percent for a close relative and 40—70 percent for a twin.
The exact way that this occurs remains unclear. It is likely that just having a genetic predisposition to the disorder is not enough to trigger its development. Environmental factors may also be necessary to trigger symptoms in people with the relevant gene variations. It is also important to note that just because someone has a greater chance of having bipolar disorder, it does not mean that they will go on to develop it.
Research suggests that the majority of people with a genetic predisposition are healthy, and most people with a relative who has bipolar disorder do not have the condition themselves.
Along with genetics, there are some environmental factors that appear to play a part in triggering bipolar disorder in susceptible people. These include:. However, the occurrence, duration, and intensity of the symptoms can determine which subtype a person has.
Around 50 percent of people with bipolar disorder also experience symptoms of psychosissuch as hallucinations and delusions. These cause people to imagine things that are not happening, or to maintain false beliefs. Other symptoms include anxiety and substance misuse. Though bipolar disorder is a long term condition, most people can manage their symptoms and improve their quality of life if they follow a treatment plan.
Lithium, a mood stabilizer, is a standard drug treatment for bipolar disorder.
Borderline Personality Disorder
Research suggests that it can help prevent relapses long term. Many people with bipolar disorder will need to take alternative or additional medicines, such as:. Most people with bipolar may need to make lifestyle modifications to reduce the occurrence or severity of manic or depressive symptoms. Most experts believe that there is a genetic component to bipolar disorder, but they do not fully understand the specifics. They also think that these genetic variations must interact with environmental factors to trigger symptoms.
People with a close relative who has bipolar disorder have a higher chance of developing the condition, though this does not mean that someone will definitely develop it. People with any concerns that they or a family member are showing symptoms of bipolar disorder should see their doctor. Many treatments exist to help people manage their symptoms and maintain a relatively good quality of life.
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